One of the problems of psycho-pedagogical and medico-social support is a range of educational and professional way for children left without care roditeley.Podrostkovy period — a turbulent period of life, time critical changes that affect the entire life of a teenager. As a teenager, is finally formed an intelligent device that allows meaningful design their own world view, personal values and self — concept. It was at that time laid many factors that will guide the further development of the personality people.
Proforientatsiya graduates of boarding schools is a necessary part of the preparation for independent living. Specificity profkonsultatsionnoy career guidance and work with adolescents in a children’s home is determined by several factors. On the one hand, they need to create professional perspective, where learning at the college or school is only the first step, and on the other — to develop a wide range of interests that go beyond the strictly professional work, which would make life a teenager (now and in the future) spiritually bogatoy.V conditions profiling education, children who grow up in a substitute family, and often carry a forced choice Profile subsequent studies. Often when choosing a profile of training and further the interests of the profession and the ability to disperse student or first put the question of prestige, and he makes a mistake in the choice of which regret later, and he and his parents.
The main directions of career guidance:
— Professional information (learning adolescents with modern types of production, the state of the labor market needs of economic complex in qualified personnel, maintenance and development prospects of the market trades, forms and conditions of their development, the requirements for professions a person may vocational qualification growth and self-improvement in the course of employment);
— Professional advice (assistance in professional self-determination in order to make them informed decision about choosing a career path);
— Professional selection (providing recommendations on possible areas of professional activity, the most appropriate to the mental, psycho-physiological, physiological characteristics, based on the results of psychological, psycho-physical, educational, and medical diagnostics).
— Psychological support — methods that reduce the psychological tension, to a positive attitude and confidence in the future.
Educational psychologist, working on career-oriented direction, can undertake the following activities:
1. Identify interests, aptitudes of pupils, personal orientation, primary profnamereniya and their dynamics;
2. Determine the motivation of the choice and structure;
3. Generate readiness for self-reflection and self-assessment to the actual level of claims;
4. Determine the level of the various aspects of the personality, dynamics and variability of symptoms, life-style;
5. Determine the extent to which the «personality profile» and professional requirements.
Work on the psychological diagnosis of vocational guidance is based on the priority assessment of personal qualities of each young person and their account in the preparation of recommendations for the choice of the future of business. Psycho-diagnostic methods to identify individual characteristics allow us to estimate the prospects of development of the individual in accordance with a desired profession, and put a «psychological diagnosis»: the ability and capacity of the consulted in this regard. This assessment allows the teenager really imagine their place in the labor market, have chosen the right profession, as well as the degree of effort and cost required to develop the necessary skills and the acquisition of knowledge and experience.
Significant factors are the professionalization teen’s interests, aptitudes, abilities at the pre-determination. The absence of any express interests and aptitudes entails delay and postponement of professional self-teens. Their choice is often random, inconsistent internal needs committed under the influence of external circumstances or as an attempt to emulate their parents, peers.
During the diagnostic work with children without parental care, it is advisable to use a variety of approaches: standardized test methods, projective, activating techniques.
Identify interests, aptitudes teenager is an important task of the psychologist’s diagnosis. During the diagnosis, you can use a variety of techniques, however, many of them are designed for a long time and «obsolete.»
GV Rezapkina adapted the well-known psychological tests:
Matrix choice of profession (GV Rezapkina)
The definition of professional personality type (modification techniques G. Holland)
The method of «Profile» (a modification of «interest card» AE Golomshtok)
Type of thinking (as modified GV Rezapkinoy)
These tests are as close as possible to the current realities have a practical orientation, language support, aimed at the study of individual psychological characteristics and motivation of students — the most important prerequisites for the formation of professional abilities and prospects of development of the individual.
In the course of career-oriented diagnostics are also applied techniques of computer diagnosis, so that a set of such diagnostics is a career-guidance system «Profi-II». The program includes research methodology interests, aptitudes, abilities, performance:
Differential-diagnostic questionnaire (DDO, E.A.Klimov)
Map of interests (A.E.Golomshtok)
The study of the motives professional student (L.A.Golovey)
Study of achievement motivation (A.Mehrabian)
Investigation of self-esteem (Dembo, Rubinstein)
Diagnosis of Health (tepling test E.P.Ilina)
The study of interpersonal relationships (T.Liri)
The study of learning motivation in high school (T.I.Ilina)
The structural drawing of a man (A.A.Karelina)
Comprehensive assessment of the motivational and personal sphere allows the student to use the program in the various tasks:
student orientation when choosing a specialization in high school;
help in making decisions about future education;
selection of the most preferred areas of professional activity;
making recommendations for the development and training required for the selected scope of skills.
In career counseling, there are many well-known questionnaires and tests. But the constantly changing situation in the society, as well as changing perceptions about the nature and methods of profkonsultatsionnoy help stimulate the search for more and more money. One of the most interesting methods are activating technique.
Activating techniques aimed at forming the subject of professional self-determination and involve not only the formation of the consulted teen interest (motivation) to consider the problems, but also adopt it accessible and understandable tool for planning, adjusting and implementing their professional prospects.
It is important to understand that almost any form of work methods and have a certain activating potential. The problem is to identify and exploit this potential. For example, even a traditionally inactive form of a lecture may be more activated than other psychotherapeutic group (if the lecture is held with a skilful combination of verbal and non-verbal means, if skillfully constructed and easy to understand the logic of the presentation, as well as in the calculation of the prepared audience).
As is known, the practical method is not only a set of instructions and stimulus material for the client, but also involves the willingness of the consultant to use it in real life, taking into account the features of the client, as well as the entire situation in this institution. The essence profkonsultatsionnoy technique — in correlation with the major components circuits of personal professional perspective.
The activation procedure is largely similar to the playing method, but it has its own peculiarities. The main characteristics of the catalytic profkonsultatsionnoy methods are as follows:
1. Interesting, fascinating procedure techniques for customer data.
2. Personal significance for clients discussed in the methodology issues. (Note that if the issues discussed and the problems are not yet significant for clients, to increase interest in these issues should spend another method.)
3. Voluntary participation in the procedure for customers of this technique (known as «force-play can not make,» and the more forcibly aktiviziruesh, because there is the risk of causing the client directly opposite reaction).
4. Dvuhplanovost action (as in the game), which involves, on the one hand, the real plan of action (real emotions, talk, action), on the other hand, the fictional action plan. (For example, a vocational counselor and the client in the imagination can travel at other times, in a variety of situations of self-determination, allow yourself to work with abstract images of various spaces of self-determination, etc. Externally, it may look like a normal conversation, but the conversation of people who understand what they say. believed even that the more pronounced this imaginary plan of action, the more opportunities for genuine activation, whereas the real plan of action is limited to the specific (real) conditions and actions. Vocational counseling and largely involves working with imaginary objects — a kind «thought experiment» (for example, planning and consideration of the future life of the client, which can only just guess.) However, not all clients and not all consultants are ready for this (internal) activity, based on a developed imagination. And then there is the problem of choice of method of activation, which is consistent with the general level of development of participants in consultative interaction. example, in primitive situations (when many of the students in the class are not ready to the mental experimentation), professional counselors have to use methods which involved more realistic plan understood by the majority of gaming action (with real » prihlopa «and» imbedded «), and only then, failing to students interested in external actions, gradually moving on to more complicated procedures of activating the internal (imaginary) plan.)
5. Joint venture with a client considering career guidance issues, which, in turn, implies:
— Allocation of the overall objective of the (if the consultant and the client about the goals are different, the interaction will not work);
— The use of public funds to address identified problems and goals (consultant must find the means, methods, techniques that the client can understand and on a par with the consultants to use these funds to address the issues discussed);
— Ensuring the gradual transfer of problem-solving tools in internal action plan client, ie vocational counselor must not only show how this tool is used, but also to educate the client to use a tool to solve their own problems;
— In the ideal case, the consultant helps the customer to build their own (individual) means for solving the multiple problems of vocational guidance. But at the heart of the revitalization is still a specially crafted interest …
Thus, the activation technique — it’s not just an interesting technique for the client, but above all, the technique is arming client tool for independent action.
An interesting example to work with children without parental care is a method of activating Pryazhnikova NS Technique is held to raise awareness among young people of his readiness to different types of professional work.
Students need to evaluate if they could, at this stage of its development successfully perform each of these actions. Students need to pay attention to what is in question here is not about their desires, but only about their capabilities and abilities. Note: As with other methods of activating, the psychologist can clarify and comment on individual approval. Next on the list of professions teenagers consider occupations that interest them. In case of such trades will not appear in the list, can be negotiated with students considered close to them profession.
In the «Set professions» include some of the activities that have traditionally such lists do not include: homeless, hobo, beggar, a thief, a prostitute, a racketeer, a drug dealer. Under present conditions it is such methods of making money cause increased interest in adolescents, and the like can discuss the inclusion of these «profession» with the students.
Next psychologist shows an example of how determined willingness to trade. Students repeat after psychologist relevant calculations, and later independently determine the willingness of those careers that interest them. Each student can check their willingness to at least four trades.
In working with children and adolescents who are without parental care, it is important to use different techniques to help them form a future professional activity, to promote the interests and inclinations.
Professional advice — scientifically organized information about jobs for practical help in choosing a career with the aptitudes, interests and abilities formed.
Vocational guidance — a complex psychological and educational activities aimed at optimizing the employment process in accordance with the desires, inclinations and abilities formed.
Professional competence — a set of psychic psycho-physiological characteristics of a person required to achieve socially acceptable performance in one way or another profession.